Uterine Adenomyosis

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Adenomyosis Overview

Though Adenomyosis is seen as a non-cancerous condition, the regular pain and intense bleeding linked to it can adversely affect a woman’s overall well-being. It is a condition of the uterus with symptoms similar to those of uterine fibroids. It occurs when cells from the lining of the uterine cavity grow into the muscle wall. During the menstrual cycle, these cells bleed into the muscle, causing pain. The blood leads to muscle swelling, which, when irritated, becomes fibrous. This swollen area is called an adenomyoma and can resemble a fibroid on a sonogram.

It makes the uterus thicker and larger, sometimes growing to two or three times its normal size. Adenomyosis can result in painful periods, excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding with clots, and pain in the abdomen or pelvic region.

Adenomyosis can affect the entire uterus, making it bulky and heavy, called diffuse Adenomyosis, or it may be localized in one spot, called focal Adenomyosis.

Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Signs of Adenomyosis can vary, and approximately one-third of individuals with Adenomyosis may not exhibit any signs or symptoms. While it’s not life-threatening, it can significantly impact a woman’s well-being. Common signs include:

  • Painful menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea): Suffering from intense cramping during menstruation.
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia): Experiencing excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding.
  • Abnormal menstruation: Irregularities in the menstrual cycle.
  • Pelvic pain: Experiencing pain in the pelvic region, with or without severe cramping.
  • Painful intercourse (dyspareunia): Discomfort or pain during sexual activities.
  • Infertility: Difficulty in conceiving or challenges with fertility.
  • Enlarged uterus: The uterus may increase in size.
  • Bloating or fullness: Feeling bloated or full in the abdominal area (Adenomyosis belly).
  • Frequent urination: Constant urge to urinate due to bladder pressure

If you encounter symptoms like pain or heavy bleeding, you should promptly seek medical attention. Getting an early diagnosis allows for quicker access to suitable treatment options. The sooner you consult with a doctor, the sooner you can begin addressing and managing the condition effectively.

Causes of Adenomyosis

The exact cause of Adenomyosis is unknown, and there are several theories:

  • Fetal development: Adenomyosis is believed to start during fetal development, depositing endometrial tissue in the uterine muscle.
  • Childbirth inflammation: Inflammation of the uterus during childbirth might contribute to Adenomyosis, disrupting uterine cell boundaries.
  • Cesarean influence: C-sections may encourage endometrial cell infiltration into the uterine walls.
  • Estrogen’s crucial role: Adenomyosis growth is significantly influenced by estrogen production, resolving naturally during menopause.
  • Stem cell origins: A recent theory suggests that bone marrow stem cells may invade the uterine muscle, triggering Adenomyosis. Despite the uncertainty about its origins, Adenomyosis growth is influenced by circulating estrogen in the body.
  • Risk factors: Childbirth and prior uterine surgery, especially C-sections and fibroid removals, increase Adenomyosis risk due to potential uterine wall breaks.

Adenomyosis Impact on Daily Activities

Adenomyosis, while not harmful, brings challenges to daily life. Excessive bleeding and severe pain can impact activities, making them less enjoyable due to the risk of bleeding. Painful periods may disrupt work or daily routines, potentially leading to sick days. It can also affect having a relationship and make your love life difficult. The pain may contribute to feelings of depression, anxiety, irritability, and helplessness. Seeking medical attention for symptoms is crucial, allowing for appropriate treatment options to manage the condition.

Diagnosis of Adenomyosis

Doctors often suspect Adenomyosis based on symptoms and tests like:

  • Pelvic exam: Your doctor may notice a larger, softer, or more painful uterus during an exam.
  • Ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound uses sound waves to show images of your pelvic organs, revealing uterine wall thickening.
  • Imaging scans: MRI scans can display uterine enlargement and specific thickened areas.
  • Biopsy: To rule out serious conditions, a biopsy may be done. This involves collecting and testing tissue for signs of more severe diseases.

Options for Adenomyosis Treatment in India

  • Medical treatment: Traditional medications like oral progesterone or birth control pills may not always be effective. A recent study suggests that a progesterone-containing IUD can provide temporary relief for menstrual cramping in about 40 to 50% of women, with some common side effects.
  • Surgical treatment: Historically, hysterectomy, the surgical removal of the uterus, was the primary option for treating Adenomyosis. However, it’s no longer the only solution available.
  • Non-Surgical treatment: Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) emerges as the latest and most advanced non-surgical treatment of Adenomyosis in India, preserving the uterus.

Non-surgical Adenomyosis Treatment in India: Uterine Artery Embolization

This treatment is a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, needing just a small skin incision. Conducted under sedation or mild local anesthesia, it ensures a pain-free experience with an overnight hospital stay. Most women quickly resume light activities within days and return to their normal routine within a week.

Advantages of Uterine Artery Embolization Treatment in India

  • Effectiveness: This procedure effectively treats both focal and diffuse Adenomyosis, including cases associated with single or multiple fibroids.
  • Comprehensive treatment: Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) targets Adenomyosis and all uterine fibroids simultaneously, ensuring thorough and efficient treatment.
  • Simple procedure: Conducted by an interventional radiologist, the procedure involves a small incision in the skin near the groin. A catheter is then inserted, and using angiography with contrast media injection, the uterine artery is identified. Subsequently, embolization particles (polyvinyl alcohol) are injected, blocking the tiny vessels that supply blood to Adenomyosis and fibroids. This blockage leads to infarction, causing the degeneration of Adenomyosis, resulting in a reduction in the size of the uterus over a few weeks. In 85% to 95% of patients, symptoms such as bleeding and pain are effectively resolved.

Indications of Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization is recommended for various conditions, including:

  • Focal or diffuse Adenomyosis.
  • Single or multiple uterine fibroids.
  • Cases of failed myomectomy or recurrence of fibroids after myomectomy.
  • Patients at high risk for surgery due to factors like anemia, chronic renal failure, obesity, etc.
  • Postpartum hemorrhage.
  • Bleeding is associated with cancer of the cervix and uterus.
  • Pre-operative embolization to minimize bleeding during uterine surgery.

Benefits of Uterine Artery Embolization in India

  • It requires only a small skin nick, avoiding abdominal surgery.
  • Quicker recovery compared to hysterectomy or open surgery.
  • Performed with mild sedation, ensuring a pain-free experience.
  • Minimal adhesion or scar formation is observed, unlike in traditional surgery.
  • It involves minimal blood loss, eliminating the need for blood transfusion.
  • Addresses Adenomyosis and uterine fibroids simultaneously, unlike surgery.
  • High success rate, approximately 95%.
  • Rapid resolution of severe pain and excessive vaginal bleeding occurs in 90-95% of cases within 24 hours.
  • Offers financial, emotional, and physical advantages, preserving the uterus without removal.

Exploring Adenomyosis Treatment in India

For individuals dealing with Adenomyosis, seeking treatment in India proves to be a wise choice for several reasons. Renowned for its advanced medical facilities, India offers cutting-edge non-surgical treatments for Adenomyosis. The expertise of skilled healthcare professionals ensures precise diagnosis and tailored treatment plans.

With the added advantage that the Adenomyosis treatment cost in India is very low, it is a viable option, delivering exceptional medical care without straining finances. Patients benefit from world-class facilities, experienced medical teams, and state-of-the-art technology, making their healthcare journey in India a comprehensive and affordable solution. Explore more about non-surgical Adenomyosis treatment cost in India to avail yourself of top-notch medical care at a fraction of the cost compared to many other countries.

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