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What is Endoscopic Craniotomy?

Endoscopic craniotomy is the minimally invasive surgical procedure for treating the following diseases of brain:

  • Cerebral Aneurysm – It includes: Blood clot also known as hematoma; AVM (arteriovenous malformations ) which refer to abnormal blood vessels; trigger deep brain tissues; and observe intracranial pressure.
  • Brain Biopsy
  • Brain injuries
  • Hydrocephalus – A condition in which fluid gets accumulated in the brain.
  • Removal of brain tumors.

The technique involved in the surgery uses keyhole (small) incisions in the skull followed by inserting slim instruments like endoscope through the hole and then removing the entire bone flap. This bone flap is temporarily removed and then replaced after the surgery has been done. This bone flap heals repairs like any other broken bone after surgery. Just like cast in broken arms or legs, the surgeons sometimes use metallic plates to hold the bone flap in its place.

Endoscopic Craniotomy is also known by the following names:

  • Minimally Invasive Craniotomy
  • Keyhole Craniotomy
  • Endoscopic brain surgery

Craniotomy is often confused with Craniectomy in which bone flap is removed like craniotomy but is not replaced like craniotomy. It may be because of injury or infection to the bone itself. In such cases, artificial bone and prosthetics are used.


Example of a Craniotomy Procedure

Craniotomy Surgery in India


What happens during and after surgery?

The surgery is performed by making a small incision in the skull. After that burr holes are made in the skull and then a bone flap (piece of bone) is taken out to get an access to the brain. Now the surgeon can perform the required procedure, be it relieving the pressure on brain, removing blood clot, clipping the connection between an aneurysm and a blood vessel, or removing part of or whole tumor.

Once the surgery is done, the surgeon replaces the bone flap and then stitches the scalp together. Usually bone flaps are fixed at their place with the help of a metal plate or metallic screws in order to prevent the dislocation of bone flap.

This surgery takes 4 to 6 hours including the time of giving anesthesia before surgery and shifting of patient to ICU after surgery. Patient stays in the ICU or recovery area for regular intensive monitoring. Depending on the recovery rate, the patient then gets shifted to a ward where a nursing team is available for close monitoring and taking medical care. Patient is given fluid intake initially through drips. There is also a drain pipe attached for removing any kind of fluid coming out from the wound. Also, till the patient starts moving, a catheter is put into the bladder for passing urine. All these tubes get removed one by one as the patient recovers.

Patient might feel pain and tightening at the site of the wound as it recovers. The treating doctor gives pain killers for this pain to subside. It would gradually go away once the stitches were removed after a few days of surgery.

Patients may also feel a clicking sensation at the surgical site. This is due slight movement of bone flaps and so there is no need to get worried as it is not harmful. The flap will heal in sometime and then the patient would get relieved of this sensation. There can be mild headaches for a few months; this too would settle down over a period of time.

The hospital stay varies from 3 to 7 days.

Endoscopic Craniotomy In India
Endoscopic Craniotomy In India

Recovery and Precautions

Recovery time depends upon certain factors like:

  • Area of the brain where the surgery was performed
  • Other areas of brain that get affected by surgery
  • Patient’s age and overall condition.

Following are the precautions to be taken during recovery period:

  • Patients need to take complete rest and avoid even minor exertion as brain surgery is one the most sensitive and complicated surgeries.
  • An attendant from the patient’s family should always be available around the patient, at least for initial 48 hours, in order to monitor any changes in patient’s condition.
  • Avoid sofas and recliners for at least 2 weeks and do not lie flat on the bed. Keep extra pillows for elevation while sleeping.
  • Strictly keep away from any sort of lifting weight as this will lead to intracranial pressure and thus further complications may occur.
  • Do not take alcohol or any alcoholic beverages as this will make you more likely to get seizures.
  • Patients may be advised for neuro-oncology or radiation oncology consultation if the surgery was done for removing brain tumor.
  • Unless the incision area gets healed properly, use skin sensitive shampoo and do not rub the wound area.
  • Do not drive till taken approval from your treating doctor.
  • Take enough sleep to be able to recover faster.
  • Ambulation is advised for preventing any risk of pneumonia or blood clot.
Risks involved in the Endoscopic Craniotomy Surgery  

Risks involved in the surgery

This includes both general and specific risks. General risks are: infection at the surgical site, blood clot or bleeding, instability of blood pressure, and pneumonia. While specific risks can be: brain swelling, stroke, coma, meningitis, seizures, imbalance while walking, and memory problems.

Like we said for other surgeries, here too all the above can be avoided by pre discussion with your treating doctor and following the instructions completely.

The treating doctor needs to be contacted in case of below mentioned issues:

  • High fever.
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control.
  • Excessive vomiting or nausea.
  • Chest pain or difficulty in breathing.
  • Discharge from the surgical site.
  • Severe headache.
  • Numbness or pain in the wound.
  • Any changes in vision, hearing or memory.
  • Any kind of seizure.

Craniotomy Surgery in India

Craniotomy surgery is a type of brain surgery in which an opening is made in the skull. This surgery is usually performed to remove a tumor or to relieve pressure on the brain. Craniotomy surgery can also be used to treat certain types of seizures, bleedings, and infections.

The cost of craniotomy surgery in India is much lower than in developed countries like the United States and United Kingdom. This is because the cost of living and medical care in India is relatively low. In addition, there are many qualified neurosurgeons in India who are able to perform this type of surgery in India.

So if you are searching for the best hospitals in India for craniotomy surgery, contact us today. Our team at Super Speciality Care will help you find the best hospital for your surgery.

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